Bonn: R. Habelt. Butoi, M. . Mormânt de incineraţie din epoca fierului descoperit la Slatina. Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări, 1, 29– Căpitanu, V. . Cultura La Tène s-a dezvoltat și a înflorit în epoca târzie a fierului (între aproximativ î.e.n. și cucerirea romană din secolul I î.e.n.) în Belgia, estul Franței. Epoca fierului. In Oţetea, A. (ed.), Istoria Poporului Român. Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică, 32– Neugebauer, J.-W. Die Kelten im Osten Österreichs.
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The characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steeltypically alloys with a carbon content between approximately 0. Epoca fierului this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurical advancements.
A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted ironincluding techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. In Chinathere is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions almost directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; "Iron Age" in the context of China is epoca fierului used for the transitonal period of c.
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The following gives an overview over the different conventions epoca fierului the "Iron Age" for various regions of the Old Worldwith indication epoca fierului the subsequent historical epoch.
Early ferrous metallurgy[ edit ] Main articles: They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering.
Such iron, being in its native metallic state, epoca fierului no smelting of ores. Tin's low melting point of Akanuma concludes that "The combination of carbon dating, archaeological context, and archaeometallurgical examination indicates that it is likely that the use of ironware made of steel had already begun in the third millennium BC in Central Anatolia".
Tewari concludes that "knowledge of iron smelting and manufacturing of iron artifacts was well known in the Eastern Vindhyas and iron had been epoca fierului use in the Central Ganga Plain, at least from the early second millennium BC".
African epoca fierului are turning up dates as early as BC. Approaches to identity in the European Iron Age: Integrating South-Eastern Europe into the debate C?
The archaeology of the Iron Age in particular has engendered much debate on the topic of epoca fierului, fuelled by the first availability of written sources alongside the archaeological evidence which has led many researchers to associate the features they excavate with populations named by Greek or Latin writers.
Some archaeological traditions have had their entire structure built around notions epoca fierului ethnicity, around the relationships existing between large groups of people conceived together as forming unitary ethnic units.
On the other hand, partly influenced by anthropological studies, other scholars have written forcefully against Iron Age ethnic constructions, such as epoca fierului Celts.