In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from . This type of ground applies to radio antennas and to lightning protection systems. Permanently installed electrical equipment, unless not required to. External Building Earth Ground SystemHalo Ground System (HGS) usually consists of a #2 AWG minimum, non-insulated, solid or stranded wire routed around. Jump to Types of TN networks - There are five types of neutral earthing: Solid-earthed neutral. Unearthed neutral. Resistance-earthed neutral. Low-resistance earthing. High-resistance earthing. Reactance-earthed neutral. Using earthing transformers (such as the Zigzag transformer)‎Low-voltage systems · ‎IEC terminology · ‎Properties · ‎Regulations.


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Because the protection will change by the size of these values.

This type of ground types of grounding to radio antennas and to lightning protection systems. Permanently installed electrical equipment, unless not required to, has permanently connected grounding conductors.

Portable electrical devices with metal cases may have them connected to earth ground by a pin on the attachment plug see Domestic AC power plugs and sockets.


The size of power grounding conductors is usually regulated by local or national types of grounding regulations. Earthing system In types of grounding supply systems, an earthing grounding system defines the electrical potential of the conductors relative to that of the Earth's conductive surface.

The choice of earthing system has implications for the safety and electromagnetic compatibility of the power supply. Regulations for earthing systems vary considerably between different countries.

Types of Earthing & Electrical grounding systems | Electrical mastar

A functional earth connection serves more than protecting against electrical shock, as such a connection may carry current during the normal operation of a device.

Such devices include surge suppression, electromagnetic-compatibility filters, some types of antennas, and various types of grounding instruments. Generally the protective earth system is also used as a functional earth, though this requires care.

Impedance grounding[ edit types of grounding Distribution power systems may be solidly grounded, with one circuit conductor directly connected to an earth grounding electrode system.


Every transformer can be considered a separate source. If there were not a common reference point types of grounding all these voltage sources it would be extremely difficult to calculate their relationships to each other. The earth is the most omnipresent conductive surface, and so it was adopted in the very beginnings of electrical distribution systems as a nearly universal standard for all electric systems.

Types of Earthing Systems

Types of grounding edit ] In TN, an insulation fault is very likely to lead to a high short-circuit current that will trigger an overcurrent circuit-breaker or fuse and disconnect the L conductors.

Earlier TT installations may lack this important safety feature, types of grounding the CPC Circuit Protective Conductor or PE and perhaps associated metallic parts within reach of persons exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts to become energized for extended periods under fault conditions, which is a real danger.

In a TN-C system, they would also be very vulnerable to unwanted triggering from contact between earth conductors of circuits on different RCDs or with real ground, thus making their use impracticable.

Also, RCDs usually isolate the neutral core. In single-ended single-phase systems where the Earth and neutral are combined TN-C, and the part of TN-C-S systems which uses a combined neutral and types of grounding coreif there is a contact problem in the PEN conductor, types of grounding all parts of the earthing system beyond the break will rise to the potential of the L conductor.

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In an unbalanced multi-phase system, the potential of the earthing system will move towards that of the most types of grounding line conductor. Such a rise in the potential of the neutral beyond the break is known as a neutral inversion.

There is also a risk if a cable is damaged, which can be mitigated by the use of concentric cable construction and multiple earth electrodes.


Due to the small risks of the lost neutral raising 'earthed' metal work to types of grounding dangerous potential, coupled with the increased shock risk from proximity to good contact with true earth, the use of TN-C-S supplies is banned in the UK for caravan sites and shore supply to boats, and strongly discouraged for use on farms and outdoor building sites, and in such cases it is recommended to make all outdoor wiring TT with RCD and a separate earth electrode.

Halo Ground System HGS is a grounding philosophy dictating that all non-electrical metallic components have short lengths types of grounding bonding conductors from non-surge producing metallic objects to the Halo Ground System HGS for personnel safety purposes.

The Halo Ground System HGS is usually connected at each corner of the types of grounding or room to an external earth ground electrode system via a separate grounding electrode conductor. Lightning Rod System is a method of placing a metallic rod higher than a building to draw lightning to it and directing types of grounding to earth.

Grounding is the process of electrically connecting any metallic object to the earth by the way of an earth electrode system. The National Electric Code requires that the grounding electrodes be tested to ensure that they are under ohms resistance-to-ground Earth.